Volume:1, Issue:1- Mini Review
K. Blum * , W. Jacobs, E.J. Modestino, N. DiNubile, D. Baron, T. McLaughlin, D. Siwicki, I. Elman, M. Moran, E. R. Braverman, P. K. Thanos, and R. D. Badgaiyan
The United States are amid an opioid overdose epidemic; we are challenged to provide non-addicting/non-pharmacological alternatives to assist in pain attenuation. There are proven strategies available to manage chronic pain effectively without opioids. Utilization review providers for insurance companies often ignore medicine based scientific peer-reviewed studies that warn against the chronic use of opioid medications, as well as the lack of evidence to support long-term use of opioids for pain. This paradigm must change if we are to indeed change the drug-embracing culture in American chronic pain management. A barrier to treatment is pushback on the part of insurance companies especially as it relates to fighting against pain relief alternatives compared to classical analgesic agents. Pain specialists in the U.S., are compelled to find alternative solutions to help pain victims without promoting unwanted tolerance to analgesics and subsequent biological induction of the "addictive brain." It is noteworthy that reward center of the brain plays a crucial role in the modulation of nociception, and that adaptations in dopaminergic circuitry may affect several sensory and affective components of chronic pain syndromes. Possibly knowing a patient's genetic addiction risk score (GARS™) could eliminate guessing as it relates to becoming addicted.